Saturday, March 14, 2020

Andregernic blocking drugs Essay

Andregernic blocking drugs Essay Andregernic blocking drugs Essay Adrenergic blocking drugs General Principals (Class) Beta adrenergic blocking agents prevent stimulation of the beta adrenergic receptors at the nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system and therefore decrease the activity of the heart. They block sympathetic stimulation of the heart and reduce systolic pressure, heart rate, cardiac contractility and output, so decrease myocardial oxygen demand and increase exercise tolerance (agents, 2013) Indications Adrenergic blocking agents are used to treat angina, control abnormal heart rhythms and to reduce high blood pressure (agents, 2013). They are also used to treat a variety of other conditions including benign prostatic hyperplasia and Reynaud’s disease (Blockers, 2013). Cautions Adrenergic blocking drugs are typically not used on people with asthma because they may trigger severe asthma attacks. Also with people who have diabetes, adrenergic blocking drugs may block signs of low blood sugar, such as rapid heartbeat (Blockers, 2013). Mechanism of Action To interrupt the stimulation of the SNS at the alpha 1- adrenergic receptors. Alpha blockers work to bind and antagonize receptors by blocking norepinephrine making it non responsive called a competitive blockade. A covalent bond makes receptors less responsive but responsive in a small amount to norepinephrine called a noncompetitive blockade. Adverse Effects Sudden drop in blood pressure after the first dose called the first-dose phenomenon, causing the patient to pass out. Cardiovascular palpitations, tachycardia, edema and angina. Nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, dry mouth and abdominal Toxic Effects In the case of an overdose, activated charcoal is the standard choice of med because after administered it binds to the drug and is removes it from the stomach and the circulation. Supportive measures include vitals, fluids, and anticonvulsants such as diazepam for the control of seizures. Route of Administration Alpha1 Blockers Mostly administered orally(PO) Except for phentolamine, administration routes are intravenous(IV), intramuscular(IM), and subcutaneously(subcut) Phentolamine can be used for extravasation of vasoconstricting drugs(e.g., norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine) subcutaneously(subcut) in a circular fashion around the extravasation site to increase blood flow to the ischemic tissue and thus prevent permanent damage. Beta Blockers Nonselective Mostly administered PO Labetalol(Normodyne, Trandate) and propranolol(Inderal) are administered PO and IV Timolol PO, IV, and ophthalmic for glaucoma (Skidmore-Roth, 2013) Cardioselective Mostly administered PO Metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol-XL), PO and IV Esmolol (Brevbloc) IV only (Lilly Lane, Rainforth Collins, & Snyder, 2014) Common Drug Interactions Antacids (aluminum hydroxide type) Decrease absorption resulting in decreased beta blocker activity Antimuscarinics and Anticholinergics Antagonism resulting in reduction of beta blocker effects Digoxin Additive effect, enhancing bradycardic effects of digoxin Diuretics, cardiovascular drugs, alcohol Additive effect resulting with additive hypotensive effects Neuromuscular blocking drugs Additive effect by prolonging neuromuscular blockade Oral hypoglycemic drugs and Insulin Mask signs of hypoglycemia and delay recovery from hypoglycemia (Lilly Lane, Rainforth Collins, & Snyder, 2014) Nursing implications for patients taking Adrenergic Blocking Drugs include: Patient teaching (Lilly, Collins, Synder, 2014, Pg 319-322) Wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace Carrying around a list of medications and specific diagnosis around with them at all times Take medication exactly as prescribed and never to stop the medication abruptly Avoid caffeine and other CNS stimulants Avoid consuming any alcohol Contact your doctor immediately if and when you experience any of the following: Palpitations, chest pain, confusion, weight gain of 2

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Developing a conceptual framework is an impossible possibility Essay - 2

Developing a conceptual framework is an impossible possibility - Essay Example Conceptual frameworks have been constantly changed from them. However, individual organizations have come up with their own conceptual frameworks that suit specific organizational needs. A conceptual framework provides an over view of how things should be done in an organization. It is a coherent system of related objectives and fundamentals that should lead to consistent standards that prescribe the nature, function, and limits of financial accounting and financial statements.† (Foulks Lynch 1998) A conceptual framework development takes time. The worst part is that once it is ready, hardly any of those principles are applied since the dynamic economic environment will be experiencing other challenges. Conceptual framework is like a constitution in financial accounting that stipulates its nature, function and its limits. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) also came up with an internationally recognized conceptual framework, which aims at streamlining the accou nting principles worldwide. This promotes external investments. The second function of the conceptual framework is to solve any emerging problems in the accounting sector. This explains why the boards are constantly reviewing the conceptual framework to suite the new challenges. ... The risk of not having a conceptual framework is the cropping up of haphazard standards. Without standards, businesses will even come up with their own frameworks that give them an advantage over others. This will lead to inconsistence in the basic principles. A strong conceptual framework will shield the financial sector from manipulation by other powerful forces such as the politicians and other interested parties. The process of developing a conceptual framework is done through a long deliberation among the board members. A good framework forms a good basis for a company. The advantages of a conceptual framework are as follows. It establishes standards that are logical and consistent. The CF stipulates rules and policies on how certain things should be carried out. The company will not just act anyhow, but it will be guided by certain rules, which maintain standardization. The conceptual framework provides rules to be followed when no other accounting principle can be applied. In accounting, rules are followed to the letter, but in some cases, there are no rules. The conceptual framework will come in; though most of its rules are general, they deal with all aspects of accounting. A conceptual framework builds the public trust in accounting. Financial reports and statements are known to be credible. This is because the public knows that there are bodies that set principles to govern them. Other advantages of the conceptual framework include avoiding conflict between user groups and ensuring accountability. The demerit of the conceptual framework is that it does not address the needs of the diverse users. There is no conceptual framework that can address the needs of everybody, and that is

Monday, February 10, 2020

Entrepreneur Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Entrepreneur - Assignment Example The quality and value of the products solely determine the ability of the companies to have resources for the next business run (Weerawardena & Mort, 2006). The companies have to operate in order to produce relevant products that can help the target audience in terms of fulfilling their needs and wants. Additionally, entrepreneurship cannot work effectively without remaining committed to the needs of the customers. The culture is the force that storms over every concern of the society. The collective cultures value needs of the many over those of the few so the companies have to entrepreneur in such a way that they can assist the general public regarding betterment of living standards, and the individualistic societies are using completely different approach than the abovementioned one (Spear, 2006). There is always room present for bringing innovations and inventions in the market because workforce over there is creative, and they have adequate level of technology at their disposal that they can apply as a means of accomplishing their ambitions (Akhter, 2007). Furthermore, the strategic management values the creativity of employees, and therefore, the entrepreneurial characteristics remain prominent in the organizational setup of the developed nations. The developing nations bring betterment at operational level, and often they import products from developed ones, and develop the model of franchising in order to earn their due share with each deal so the true entrepreneurship that involves innovation and invention is resident of developed nations of America and Europe (Ali, 2010). The literacy rates in developing parts of the world is not remarkable in nature, and because of this reason, professionals are not proficient with reference to their creative powers. The innovation is the defining attribute of entrepreneurships, but the human resources are the

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Merits and Demerits of Globalisation Essay Example for Free

Merits and Demerits of Globalisation Essay Introduction Globalization or (globalisation) is the process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. Globalization is often used to refer to economic globalization: the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology. This process is usually recognized as being driven by a combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural, political and biological factors. The term can also refer to the transnational dissemination of ideas, languages, or popular culture. Globalization means increasing the interdependence, connectivity and integration on a global level with respect to the social, cultural, political, technological, economic and ecological levels. Effects of globalization:- ? enhancement in the information flow between geographically remote locations ? the global common market has a freedom of exchange of goods and capital ? there is a broad access to a range of goods for consumers and companies ? worldwide production markets emerge ? Corporations have greater flexibility to operate across borders ? Increased flow of communications allows vital information to be shared between individuals and corporations around the world ? Spread of democratic ideals to developed nations ? Greater interdependence of nation-states ? Reduction of likelihood of war between developed nations ? Workers in less developed countries should see an increase in wages and living benefits. If they do, their rising standard of living should help them consume products from developed nations. A virtuous circle can theoretically be created by a whole new middle class that didn’t exist. ? Peace should be easier to maintain between nations as no country would remain isolated in this new world order. The relationship of China and the United States has changed dramatically as their trade partner status has increased over the years. ? Globalization can help modernize developing countries faster. Modern ideas can be spread to the workers, who make up the social order. ? Products can be purchased much cheaper in developing countries, which increases the lifestyle of the people. As we pay less for simple common items, we have more to spend on big ticket items, which fuel higher paid manufacturing jobs in developed countries. Advantages of globalization in the developing world It is claimed that globalization increases the economic prosperity and opportunity in the developing world. The civil liberties are enhanced and there is a more efficient use of resources. All the countries involved in the free trade are at a profit. As a result, there are lower prices, more employment and a better standard of life in these developing nations. It is feared that some developing regions progress at the expense of other developed regions. However, such doubts are futile as globalization is a positive-sum chance in which the skills and technologies enable to increase the living standards throughout the world. Liberals look at globalization as an efficient tool to eliminate penury and allow the poor people a firm foothold in the global economy. In two decades from 1981 to 2001, the number of people surviving on $1 or less per day decreased from 1. 5 billion to 1. 1 billion. Simultaneously, the world population also increased. Thus, the percentage of such people decreased from 40% to 20% in such developing countries. Disadvantages of globalisation Disadvantages of globalisation are as follows:- ? Increased flow of skilled and non-skilled jobs from developed to developing nations as corporations seek out the cheapest labor ? Increased likelihood of economic disruptions in one nation effecting all nations ? Corporate influence of nation-states far exceeds that of civil society organizations and average individuals ? Threat that control of world media by a handful of corporations will limit cultural expression ?

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Free Essays: Symbols in Homers Odyssey :: Homer Odyssey Essays

The Symbolism of Homer's Odyssey Throughout Homer's The Odyssey, many tangible symbols are used to represent abstract ideas. Each symbol that Homer uses has two meanings. The double meanings of these symbols are used to represent Odysseus and Telemachus as they strive to meet each other. While each symbol has a meaning that represents the growth of Telemachus, each one also represents, by another meaning, the growth and development of Odysseus. When they meet for the first time, the symbols, and the character traits that they represent confluence, and the resemblance between Odysseus and Telemachus becomes complete. One of the main ideas running throughout the Odyssey is the importance of water. It has the power of giving life and quick, safe travel, but it also has the potential to drown you. Water can be considered a paradox in and of itself. While it is good and usually life giving, it also demonstrates how too much of a good thing can bring harm. It brings much harm to Odysseus as he is traveling to Phaeacia, "At Zeus' command the whole sky is heavy with clouds, the sea is seething, squalls from every corner hurtle together. There is nothing now for me but certain death." Everything needs water to live, however Odysseus speaks of water as an agent of death. Water that brings death by excess represents Odysseus, for he is the one that has to suffer all these years, and he is the one that nearly drowns. Odysseus also learns how too much of a good thing, such as wealth or gold, can seriously harm a man. He especially experiences this when he sacks Troy, and gets carried away, anger ing the gods. Henceforth, it is fitting that the excessive side of water represent Odysseus. Life that is brought by water, the water that satisfies souls is the type that represents Telemachus. He is not excessive, and has been in fact humbled by the suitors in their years there. Further, Telemachus has never seen any trouble with the water or the sea, "...sent a following wind through the clear sky to speed them from astern, so that their ship might most speedily complete their journey across the salt sea." The water never hurts Telemachus and always helps him. Telemachus does not get the chance, as his father did, to Perish from his own excesses. Telemachus also has a pure mind and body which is what water embodies.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Marketing Strategy for Competitive Advantage Essay

Executive Summary Three friends – Lyndon Duke Hanson, Scott Seamans, and George Boedecker, founded Crocs Inc. in the year 2002 in Colorado, USA. As the firm grew, it acquired Foam Creations in Canada to own manufacturing operations, under the leadership of Ronal Snyder in 2004, and gained sole rights. Crocs is a designer, manufacturer and retailer of molded, casual footwear for men, women and children. All Crocs footwear feature a proprietary closed-cell resin called ‘Croslite’ that provides the wearer with extreme comfort by taking the shape of the feet of the wearer due to heat. The company boasts the footwear as being ideal for casual use as well as for professional and recreational uses viz. boating, hiking and hospitality. The product is claimed to be lightweight, slip-resistant, and odor-free, and is available in several bright colors. Crocs shoes are sold across 129 countries and come in 250 styles. The company has also diversified into apparel and accessories. One major acquisition has been of that of Jibbitz show charms, for which the company has also acquired  licensing agreements with Disney, Nickelodeon, Warner Bros. and DC Comics. The case discusses the phenomenal supply chain management of the company that has been a major reason for the success of the company, besides of course the popularity of the shoes. The achievement of an extremely flexible supply chain was the vision of Ronal Snyder, CEO, to meet customer’s demand based on the exact same principle followed by software giants. This supply chain provided Crocs with a competitive advantage in the footwear industry. Crocs had the highest profit margin in the industry at 56.5% in 2006, considerably higher than that of its competitors. Crocs created a blue ocean by creating differentiation and low costs and breaking out of the red ocean. This resulted in global expansion and quick growth. Profits increased from $10.9million in 2004 to $763.3milion in 2007. Later in the case study, we will see the Industry Analysis to understand the competitive scenario. This reveals that Nike is the market leader, followed by Adidas. A look at Porter’s Model shows that consumer’s bargaining power is a major threat in the industry. We also see the standard manufacturing practices in the industry compared to Crocs’ manufacturing techniques. The SWOT Analysis gives an understanding of the potential threats and rising opportunities. Customer’s changing tastes and threat of substitutes pose immediate threat to the firm, but it can capitalize on its unique product range and supply chain in order to gain a majority market share. Industry Analysis The global footwear market has grown from $153.2 billion in 2004 to $189.3 billion in 2007. Although the footwear industry is in the maturity stage, it is known that the demand for the product will not decline. Hence, global  sales are forecasted to reach $238 billion in 2013. Footwear industry is a highly fragmented market. The industry experiences intensive competition led by major firms such as Nike, Reebok, Adidas, and Converse. Nike is the industry leader, followed by Reebok and Adidas; Nike has a market share of 47%, Reebok – 16% and Adidas – 6%. Competitors Nike Nike is the world’s largest designer and marketer of athletic footwear and apparel. The stores are located over 180 countries. Nike is based in Oregon. It runs its manufacturing operations primarily in Asia. Nike’s footwear accounted for 60% of the company’s total net sales in 1999, after which the firm attempted to become more diversified. Nike’s largest share of sales comes from United States. Nike is one company to have crossed the $5 billion mark. Nike’s target consumers were 18-44 aged people, with six-digit income. Adidas Adidas is in the second position in the global market. It is based in Germany and sourced 97% of its footwear from Asian. Its main market is the Europe region. The firm had only a 3% market share in 2005, but after the acquisition of Reebok in 2006, the share jumped up to 9%. Footwear sales accounted for 45.5% of the total sales for Adidas in 2007. Adidas target slightly young aged, 18-44 and was especially popular among Hispanics and African Americans. Other competitors include Puma (Germany), New Balance (USA – largest privately held manufacturer), and C&J Clark (UK-based) nearing the $2.0billion mark. Porter’s Five Forces Model Threat from Existing Competition The industry is characterized by easy entry and exit. The market is competitive, with the industry being described as red ocean, often. The market has reached maturity stage, and the growth is slow-paced. Firms are  always attempting to lower costs and manage supply chain effectively to meet the changing demand. There is always a potential threat of a competitor eating into the market share. Threat from New Entrants The footwear industry is an easy market to enter for new players. Investments required are not huge, and raw materials are easily available. Legal policies are not strict, except in cases of imports in some countries. However, human rights issue is a major cause for concern in the footwear industry. Manufacturing/outsourcing decisions are used for low costs. Threat of Substitutes As entry is easy, substitutes are a major threat. Pricing becomes a key concern. Knock-offs also pose a great threat to companies even though certain designs are proprietary. Bargaining Power of Suppliers Shoes are mostly made from similar raw materials that are easily available. So, most firms manage to get materials at low costs. However, for Crocs, this is not a problem because it owns the manufacturing units and has a proprietary right over croslite. Bargaining Power of Consumers Consumers have the greatest power in the footwear industry due to availability of substitutes. Price and quality are major attributes of the product. Changing consumer taste is a potential threat. Changing fashion and trends and even fads are a problem faced by manufacturers. Competitors have come up with the concept of ‘Shoe Design’ to give the consumer the ability to custom design shoes that are delivered with two weeks. SWOT Analysis Opportunities Market penetration in the footwear industry is still considerably low, especially in Asia-Pacific region. Developing countries like India are emerging markets with huge population for firms to capitalize on.  Purchasing power of people in these countries is increasing, thus showing potential target consumer groups. Threats Substitutes and knock offs pose great threat to major players in the industry. Since pricing and quality are major concerns, low costs are the main objectives. Changing trends and consumer taste are also a serious threat. Strengths Crocs’ unique design that offers great comfort, odor-free, slip-resistant lightweight shoes at comparatively lower prices is a distinctive competency. Supply chain flexibility offers Crocs a competitive advantage over the other firms. Weakness Crocs is required to distinguish its product, especially with the usage of croslite in its footwear. This makes it difficult for Crocs to develop new products in the formal range. Financial Analysis While 92% of company’s revenues came from footwear, the remaining 8% was from the sales of accessories and apparels. Revenue has increased over the years and reached $354.7 million in 2006. There has been a tremendous increase in cost of the goods sold and was reported to be $154.2 million in 2006 from $47.8 million in 2005. Net profit margin has also been increasing and it was found to be 18.2% in 2006. Revenue was found to be $142 million in the year 2007 for Q1. Gross profit was reported to be 84.4% in the first quarter of 2007. In comparison with competitors viz. Nike and Deckers, gross profit margin of Crocs has been considerably higher. Debtor’s turnover ratio is the highest in the industry, indicating that Crocs is efficient at handling debts. Asset  management is also performed well at Crocs. But looking at the inventory turnover ratio, Crocs is one of the lowest in the industry. This shows that Crocs is unable to turn inventory into cash as effectively. It is seen that in 2006, Crocs has inventory worth $86.2million compared to $28.5million in the previous year. This shows that Crocs capital is blocked in its stock. About Crocs Inc. Mission Bring profound comfort, fun and innovation to the world’s feet. Brand Attributes Innovative Crocs shoes are distinguished from others by the following motive of the firm – Radical thinking, health-minded research, and providing solution to the Feet. Fun Colors and designs offered and the emotional experience served are important to Crocs to create its brand image. Comfort Crocs claims to offer profound comfort, ergonomic design, massaging foot bed, and lightweight. Simple Crocs believes in keeping its products simple with a versatile function. Crocs Shoes Clogs with Croslite Target Consumer Segment: Men, women and children of all ages Diabetic patients and other ailments Crocs shoes are lifestyle products that exhibit personalities like trendy, fun, and high fashion, dressy, casual and active. Various models offered include mammoth, clogs, sandals, flats, heels, boots, slip-ons, flip flops, sport, work, Ocean Minded among others. Crocs started off as a company with about 25 models in 2004, and reached a point in 2007 when it offered 250 models. Original design was the clogs that kids could personalize with Jibbitz. Over time, Crocs extended its line by using usual raw materials like leather and suede with croslite soles. Supply Chain Management For consumer, Crocs designed an extensive distribution system so its shoes were available in a variety of retail outlets from specialty stores to department stores and large shoe store chains. Footwear companies have two alternatives to choose from in the manufacturing of their products; they can both own and operate the factories that produce their products, or outsource operations. Factories may be located internationally or locally. Most firm practice outsourcing of operations to enable reduced costs. Crocs believed in meeting customer demands in the current season. Supply Chain was Crocs main focus. Crocs had adopted the global logistics strategy. The firm was vertically integrated and by 2007, had acquired various units all across the world for its operations to cater to different consumers. Hence it was faced with large capital expenditure requirements and the management of the factories themselves. Yet Crocs did a tremendous job at supply management. Where its competitors followed the seasonal order placements, Crocs had a delivery time of two to four weeks for newly placed orders, indicating how Crocs understood the demand for the product. Crocs owned the manufacturing, warehousing and retails units in almost all countries. With its effective management, Crocs was able to maintain low costs. Any other company in the footwear industry did not achieve such a flexible supply chain. The firm maintained good professional relations with the retailers, and deployed its own personnel in stores and provided a store-in-store experience to customers. Core Competencies Unique Product Crocs is the only company that offers shoes made of croslite. This material ensures extreme comfort to the wearer. Crocs owns proprietary rights over  the material, and this becomes the firm’s distinctive competency. Since Crocs is the only firm with the sole right of manufacturing such footwear, it should ensure no knock-offs are sold in the market in its name. Flexible supply chain Crocs understood the dynamic footwear industry and built a revolutionary supply chain to meet the demands of it consumers. Crocs is able to replenish stocks within weeks at short notice. This gives the firm a competitive advantage over the rivals. Other than the core business activities, Crocs has initiated a program called Crocs Cares to provide the inhabitants of disaster affected areas with shoes in over forty countries. Conclusion Crocs has managed to develop an extremely flexible supply chain in order to meet customer and retailer demands, similar to none other in the footwear industry. The firm is extensively vertically integrated and has followed a pattern of a series of acquisitions for growth. Another advantage for the firm is the sole proprietary rights over the croslite material. However, Crocs has learnt the need to extend its product line and incorporating materials like leather and suede in its products. Crocs has also managed to lure its customers by acquiring the charm business, and also by diversifying into accessories and apparels.   Although the firm is showing year-on-year profits, it is seen that by following the model of semi-finished products to achieve quick delivery, it is faced by the problem of low inventory turnover. The important thing to understand is that the industry is dynamic, and the demand is quite unpredictable due to varying trends. Thus, Crocs will continue doing better by focusing on the end-user product. References www.packagedfacts.com Global Footwear Market Report http://articles.moneycentral.msn.com How Crocs Is Outpacing The Pack http://logisticsviewpoints.com Crocs Revolutionary Supply Chain http://www.blueoceanstrategy.com Crocs Review http://ezinearticles.com History of Crocs http://www.hoovers.com Factsheet of Crocs http://company.crocs.com About Crocs – Company Profile

Monday, January 6, 2020

Book Review The Divided Self - 1625 Words

Shannon Mahoney Psych 203 Dr. Daniel Burston 4/5/15 In R.D Laing’s book The Divided Self, the author goes in depth into the concepts of sanity and madness from a psychological standpoint. The book itself contains a very detailed depiction of these through the analysis of different schizoid and schizophrenic characteristics, different patient case histories, and the approach of existential-phenomenology ideology. In The Divided Self, Laing displays criticism and slight disdain toward different psychological concepts, such as behaviorism. Laing begins by pointing out how most standard texts on the topic of analyzing a patient describes traditionally observed behavior by a psychologist or psychiatrist, and the behavior of said behavior is just a similar extension of the behavior of the psychological professional in the same behavioral field. Laing simplifies it down to, â€Å"the standard psychiatric patient is a function of the standard psychiatrist, and of the standard mental hospital.† This quote bases the scenario in a fashion where a comparative system is put in place to diagnose people with different psychological illnesses, who are sick in a medical sense. Behavioral psychiatrists ultimately view a single part of the patient’s body system, or even to the body as a whole, to help explain different possible psychological phenomenon. Laing includes the example of a doctor predicting that an individual is anxious due to him having high blood pressure or a slightly higherShow MoreRelatedBook Review - Fighting Invisible Tigers Essay1289 Words   |  6 PagesClass - FYBA Subject- Psychology Semester- I Topic- Book Review Name of the Book - Fighting Invisible Tigers: A Stress Management Guide for Teens INDEX 1. Acknowledgement 2. Book Review 3. 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